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Is Your Brain Starving?

Increase Attention, Concentration, and Focus
The ingredients in Brain Caps support your short term memory and focus without a prescription.

With almost two decades of positive results, the Brain Caps have stood the test of time. In my own clinical practice, I’ve seen the Brain Caps work wonders in helping people improve their memory and keep their mind sharp.
Only $40.95
Brain Caps
Supplement Facts  References
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Here are a few common symptoms of brain starvation:

1. Do ideas and words disappear?

2. Do you lose your train of thought?

3. Are you having more and more senior moments?

4. Do you forget names, numbers, faces, and dates?

5. Have you ever walked into a room and forgotten why you’re there?

6. Do you find it more difficult to do more than one thing at a time?

7. And, most importantly, are your attention, concentration, and focus slipping away?

    If you answered “yes” to any of these questions, you’ll be interested in the following benefits of the Brain Caps, a phenomenal supplement that I personally formulated for my own private patients.

     

    The Benefits of the Brain Caps

      • More blood flow to your brain
      • More mental energy and focus
      • Able to retain more information
      • Less stress affecting your brain
      • Greater recall of names, numbers, and faces

       

      The Brain Caps work fast, too. Often after 1 dose!

      “Dear Dr. Dharma, I was really down and blue. I was very concerned about my waning mental abilities. But the Brain Caps have really saved the day. My attention, concentration, and focus were improved after the very first dose. I can’t thank you enough.”
      ~ Mary Grace B., Therapist, Age 47, Phoenix, AZ

       

      Read More About the Brain Caps:

       

      X

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      Brain Caps

      References



      DHA Fish Oil

      1. Geiner RS, Moriguchi T, Hutton A, Slotnick BM, Salem N Jr. Rats with low levels of brain docosahexaenoic acid show impaired performance in olfactory-based and spatial learning tasks. Lipids 1999;34:S239-S243.
      2. Gamoh S, Hashimoto M, Sugioka K, et al. Chronic administration of docosahexaenoic acid improves reference memory-related learning ability in young rats. Neuroscience 1999;93:237-41.
      3. Werkman SH, Carlson SE. A randomized trial of visual attention of preterm infants fed docosahexaenoic acid until nine months. Lipids 1996;31:91-7.
      4. Lim S-Y, Suzuki H. Intakes of dietary docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester and egg phosphatidylcholine improve maze-learning ability in young and old mice. J Nutr 2000;130:1629-32.
      5. Small SA. Age-related memory decline. Arch Neurol 2001;58:360-4.
      6. Suzuki H, Hayakawa S, Wada S. Effect of age on the modification of brain polyunsaturated fatty acids and enzyme activities by fish oil diet in rats. Mech Aging Devel 1989;50:17-25.
      7. Miyanaga K, Ynoemura K, Takagi T, et al. Clinical effects of DHA in demented patients. J Clin Ther Med 1995;11:881-901.
      8. Conquer JA, Tierney MC, Zecevic J, Bettger WJ, Fisher RH. Fatty acid analysis of blood plasma of patients with Alzheimer's disease, other types of dementia, and cognitive impairment. Lipids 2000;35:1305-12.
      9. Kalmijn S, Feskens EJ, Launer LJ, Kromhout D. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants, and cognitive function in very old men. Am J Epidemiol 1997;145:33-41.
      10. Simopolous AP, Leaf A, Salem N Jr. Essentiality of and recommended dietary intakes for omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Ann Nutr Metab 1999;43: 127-130.
      11. Kris-Etherton PM, Taylor DS, Yu-Poth S, et al. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the food chain in the United States. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:179S-188S.
      12. Gerster H. Can adults adequately convert alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) to eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3)? Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1998;68:159-73.

      Ginkgo Biloba

      Pooled results from 33 studies show that the recommended dose of ginkgo biloba (<200mg/day) can significantly improve emotional health and mood, cognition, and daily activities.

      1. Clostre F. [Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761). State of knowledge in the dawn of the year 2000]. Ann Pharm Fr 1999;57 Suppl 1:1S8-88.
      2. Droy-Lefaix MT, Cluzel J, Menerath JM, Bonhomme B, Doly M. Antioxidant effect of a Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on the retina. Int J Tissue React 1995;17:93-100.
      3. Dziak LA, Golik VA. [The efficacy of treating cerebral ischemia due to changes in the major cerebral arteries by using the preparation Tanakan (EGB 761)]. Lik Sprava 1998;125-7.
      4. Haase J, Halama P, Horr R. [Effectiveness of brief infusions with Ginkgo biloba Special Extract EGb 761 in dementia of the vascular and Alzheimer type]. Z Gerontol Geriatr 1996;29:302-9.
      5. Itil TM, Eralp E, Ahmed I, Kunitz A, Itil KZ. The pharmacological effects of ginkgo biloba, a plant extract, on the brain of dementia patients in comparison with tacrine. Psychopharmacol Bull 1998;34:391-7.
      6. Ivaniv OP. [The results of using different forms of a Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in the combined treatment of patients with circulatory encephalopathy]. Lik Sprava 1998;123-8.
      7. Janssens D, Michiels C, Delaive E, Eliaers F, Drieu K, Remacle J. Protection of hypoxia-induced ATP decrease in endothelial cells by ginkgo biloba extract and bilobalide. Biochem Pharmacol 1995;50:991-9.
      8. Kanowski S, Herrmann WM, Stephan K, Wierich W, Horr R. Proof of efficacy of the ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in outpatients suffering from mild to moderate primary degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer type or multi-infarct dementia. Pharmacopsychiatry 1996;29:47-56.
      9. Kidd PM. A review of nutrients and botanicals in the integrative management of cognitive dysfunction. Altern Med Rev 1999;4:144-61.
      10. Klein J, Chatterjee SS, Loffelholz K. Phospholipid breakdown and choline release under hypoxic conditions: inhibition by bilobalide, a constituent of Ginkgo biloba. Brain Res 1997;755:347-50.
      11. Le Bars PL, Katz MM, Berman N, Itil TM, Freedman AM, Schatzberg AF. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial of an extract of Ginkgo biloba for dementia. North American EGb Study Group [see comments]. Jama 1997;278:1327-32.
      12. Oken BS, Storzbach DM, Kaye JA. The efficacy of Ginkgo biloba on cognitive function in Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 1998;55:1409-15.
      13. Oyama Y, Chikahisa L, Ueha T, Kanemaru K, Noda K. Ginkgo biloba extract protects brain neurons against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide. Brain Res 1996;712:349-52.

      Phosphatidyl Serine

      1. Allegro L, Favaretto V, Ziliotto G. Oral phosphatidylserine in elderly patients with cognitive deterioration , an open study. Clinical Trials Journal 1987;24:104-108.
      2. Brambilla F, Maggioni M, Cenacchi T, Sacerdote P, Panerai AR. Tlymphocyte proliferative response to mitogen stimulation in elderly depressed patients. J Affect Disord 1995;36:51-6.
      3. Brambilla F, Maggioni M, Panerai AE, Sacerdote P, Cenacchi T. Beta-endorphin concentration in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of elderly depressed patients--effects of phosphatidylserine therapy. Neuropsychobiology 1996;34:18-21.
      4. Cenacchi T, Baggio C, Palin E. Human tolerability of oral phosphatidylserine assessed through laboratory examinations. CLIN TRIALS J 1987;24:125-130.
      5. Cenacchi T, Bertoldin T, Farina C, Fiori MG, Crepaldi G. Cognitive decline in the elderly: a double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study on efficacy of phosphatidylserine administration. Aging (Milano) 1993;5:123-33.
      6. Crook T, Petrie W, Wells C, Massari DC. Effects of phosphatidylserine in Alzheimer's disease. Psychopharmacol Bull 1992;28:61-6.
      7. Crook TH, Tinklenberg J, Yesavage J, Petrie W, Nunzi MG, Massari DC. Effects of phosphatidylserine in age-associated memory impairment. Neurology 1991;41:644-9.
      8. Delwaide PJ, Gyselynck-Mambourg AM, Hurlet A, Ylieff M. Double-blind randomized controlled study of phosphatidylserine in senile demented patients. Acta Neurol Scand 1986;73:136-40.
      9. Drago F, Spadaro F, D'Agata V, Valerio C, Grassi M, Mauceri F, Pennisi G, Scapagnini U. Protective action of phosphatidylserine on stress-induced behavioral and autonomic changes in aged rats. Neurobiol Aging 1991;12:437-40.
      10. Engel RR, Satzger W, Gunther W, Kathmann N, Bove D, Gerke S, Munch U, Hippius H. Double-blind cross-over study of phosphatidylserine vs. placebo in patients with early dementia of the Alzheimer type. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 1992;2:149-55.
      11. Funfgeld EW, Baggen M, Nedwidek P, Richstein B, Mistlberger G. Double-blind study with phosphatidylserine (PS) in parkinsonian patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer's type (SDAT). Prog Clin Biol Res 1989;317:1235-46.
      12. Furushiro M, Suzuki S, Shishido Y, Sakai M, Yamatoya H, Kudo S, Hashimoto S, Yokokura T. Effects of oral administration of soybean lecithin transphosphatidylated phosphatidylserine on impaired learning of passive avoidance in mice. Jpn J Pharmacol 1997;75:447-50.
      13. Gianotti C, Porta A, De Graan PN, Oestreicher AB, Nunzi MG. B- 50/GAP-43 phosphorylation in hippocampal slices from aged rats: effects of phosphatidylserine administration. Neurobiol Aging 1993;14:401-6.
      14. Granata Q, Di Michele J. Phosphatidylserine in elderly patients an open trial. Clinical Trials Journal 1987;24:99-103.
      15. Heiss WD, Kessler J, Mielke R, Szelies B, Herholz K. Long-term effects of phosphatidylserine, pyritinol, and cognitive training in Alzheimer's disease. A neuropsychological, EEG, and PET investigation. Dementia 1994;5:88-98.
      16. Khalsa DS. Integrated medicine and the prevention and reversal of memory loss. Altern Ther Health Med 1998;4:38-43.
      17. Kidd PM. A review of nutrients and botanicals in the integrative management of cognitive dysfunction. Altern Med Rev 1999;4:144-61.
      18. Maggioni M, Picotti GB, Bondiolotti GP, Panerai A, Cenacchi T, Nobile P, Brambilla F. Effects of phosphatidylserine therapy in geriatric patients with depressive disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1990;81:265-70.
      19. Ransmayr G, Ploerer S, Gerstenbrand F, Bauer G. Double-blind placebo-controlled trial of phosphatidylserine in patients with arteriosclerotic encephalopathy. Clinical Trials Journal 1987;24:62-72.
      20. Sakai M, Yamatoya H, Kudo S. Pharmacological effects of phosphatidylserine enzymatically synthesized from soybean lecithin on brain functions in rodents. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo)
      21. 1996;42:47-54.
      22. Sinforiani E, Agostinis C, Merlo P, Gualtieri S, Mauri. Cognitive decline in ageing brain therapeutic approach with phosphatidylserine.
      23. Amaducci L. Phosphatidylserine in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: results of a multicenter study. Psychopharmacol Bull 1988;24:130-4.
      24. Benton D, Donohoe RT, Sillance B, Nabb S. The influence of phosphatidylserine supplementation on mood and heart rate when faced with an acute stressor. Nutr Neurosci 2001;4:169-78.
      25. Blokland A, Honig W, Brouns F, Jolles J. Cognition-enhancing properties of subchronic phosphatidylserine (PS) treatment in middle-aged rats: comparison of bovine cortex PS with egg PS and soybean PS. Nutrition 1999;15:778-83.
      26. Cenacchi T, Bertoldin T, Farina C, et al. Cognitive decline in the elderly: a double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study on efficacy of phosphatidylserine administration. Aging (Milano) 1993;5:123-33.
      27. Crook T, Petrie W, Wells C, Massari DC. Effects of phosphatidylserine in Alzheimer's disease. Psychopharmacol Bull 1992;28:61-6.
      28. Crook TH, Tinklenberg J, Yesavage J, et al. Effects of phosphatidylserine in age-associated memory impairment. Neurology 1991;41:644-9.
      29. Delwaide PJ, Gyselynck-Mambourg AM, Hurlet A, Ylieff M. Double-blind, randomized, controlled study of phosphatidylserine in senile demented patients. Acta Neurol Scand 1986;73:136-40.
      30. Engel RR, Satzger W, Gunther W, et al. Double-blind cross-over study of phosphatidylserine vs. placebo in patients with early dementia of the Alzheimer type. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 1992;2:149-55.
      31. Fahey TD, Pearl MS. The hormonal and perceptive effects of phosphatidylserine administration during two weeks of resistive exercise-induced overtraining. Biol Sport 1998;15:135-44.
      32. Funfgeld EW, Baggen M, Nedwidek P, et al. Double-blind study with phosphatidylserine (PS) in parkinsonian patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer's type (SDAT). Prog Clin Biol Res 1989;317:1235-46.
      33. Heiss WD, Kessler J, Mielke R, et al. Long-term effects of phosphatidylserine, pyritinol, and cognitive training in Alzheimer's disease. A neuropsychological, EEG, and PET investigation. Dementia 1994;5:88-98.
      34. Kidd PM. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children: rationale for its integrative management. Altern Med Rev 2000;5:402-28.
      35. Kidd PM. Phosphatidylserine; Membrane nutrient for memory. A clinical and mechanistic assessment. Altern Med Rev 1996;1:70-84.
      36. Kim HY, Akbar M, Lau A, et al. Inhibition of neuronal apoptosis by docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3). Role of phosphatidylserine in antiapoptotic effect. J Biol Chem 2000;275:35215-23.
      37. Lewis CJ. Letter to reiterate certain public health and safety concerns to firms manufacturing or importing dietary supplements that contain specific bovine tissues. FDA. Available at: www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/dspltr05.html.
      38. Maggioni M, Picotti GB, Bondiolotti GP, et al. Effects of phosphatidylserine therapy in geriatric patients with depressive disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1990;81:265-70.
      39. Mallat Z, Benamer H, Hugel B, et al. Elevated levels of shed membrane microparticles with procoagulant potential in the peripheral circulating blood of patients with acute coronary syndromes. Circulation 2000;101:841-3.
      40. Monastra G, Cross AH, Bruni A, et al. Phosphatidylserine, a putative inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor, prevents autoimmune demyelination. Neurology 1993;43:153-63.
      41. Monteleone P, Beinat L, Tanzillo C, et al. Effects of phosphatidylserine on the neuroendocrine response to physical stress in humans. Neuroendocrinology 1990;52:243-8.
      42. Monteleone P, Maj M, Beinat L, et al. Blunting by chronic phosphatidylserine administration of the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy men. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1992;42:385-8.
      43. Palmieri G, Palmieri R, Inzoli MR, et al. Double-blind controlled trial of phosphatidylserine in patients with senile mental deterioration. Clin Trials J 1987;24:73-83.
      44. Pepping J. Phosphatidylserine. Am J Health-Syst Pharm 1999;56:2038,2043-4.
      45. Schreiber S, Kampf-Sherf O, Gorfine M, et al. An open trial of plant-source derived phosphatydilserine for treatment of age-related cognitive decline. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 2000;37:302-7.
      46. Villardita C, Grioli S, Salmeri G, et al. Multicentre clinical trial of brain phosphatidylserine in elderly patients with intellectual deterioration. Clin Trials J 1987;24:84-93.
      47. Yamazaki M, Inoue A, Koh CS, et al. Phosphatidylserine suppresses Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease. J Neuroimmunol 1997;75:113-22.
      48. Zanotti A, Valzelli L, Toffano G. Chronic phosphatidylserine treatment improves spatial memory and passive avoidance in aged rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1989;99:316-21.
        X

        Brain Caps

        References



        DHA Fish Oil

        1. Geiner RS, Moriguchi T, Hutton A, Slotnick BM, Salem N Jr. Rats with low levels of brain docosahexaenoic acid show impaired performance in olfactory-based and spatial learning tasks. Lipids 1999;34:S239-S243.
        2. Gamoh S, Hashimoto M, Sugioka K, et al. Chronic administration of docosahexaenoic acid improves reference memory-related learning ability in young rats. Neuroscience 1999;93:237-41.
        3. Werkman SH, Carlson SE. A randomized trial of visual attention of preterm infants fed docosahexaenoic acid until nine months. Lipids 1996;31:91-7.
        4. Lim S-Y, Suzuki H. Intakes of dietary docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester and egg phosphatidylcholine improve maze-learning ability in young and old mice. J Nutr 2000;130:1629-32.
        5. Small SA. Age-related memory decline. Arch Neurol 2001;58:360-4.
        6. Suzuki H, Hayakawa S, Wada S. Effect of age on the modification of brain polyunsaturated fatty acids and enzyme activities by fish oil diet in rats. Mech Aging Devel 1989;50:17-25.
        7. Miyanaga K, Ynoemura K, Takagi T, et al. Clinical effects of DHA in demented patients. J Clin Ther Med 1995;11:881-901.
        8. Conquer JA, Tierney MC, Zecevic J, Bettger WJ, Fisher RH. Fatty acid analysis of blood plasma of patients with Alzheimer's disease, other types of dementia, and cognitive impairment. Lipids 2000;35:1305-12.
        9. Kalmijn S, Feskens EJ, Launer LJ, Kromhout D. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants, and cognitive function in very old men. Am J Epidemiol 1997;145:33-41.
        10. Simopolous AP, Leaf A, Salem N Jr. Essentiality of and recommended dietary intakes for omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Ann Nutr Metab 1999;43: 127-130.
        11. Kris-Etherton PM, Taylor DS, Yu-Poth S, et al. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the food chain in the United States. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:179S-188S.
        12. Gerster H. Can adults adequately convert alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) to eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3)? Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1998;68:159-73.

        Ginkgo Biloba

        Pooled results from 33 studies show that the recommended dose of ginkgo biloba (<200mg/day) can significantly improve emotional health and mood, cognition, and daily activities.

        1. Clostre F. [Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761). State of knowledge in the dawn of the year 2000]. Ann Pharm Fr 1999;57 Suppl 1:1S8-88.
        2. Droy-Lefaix MT, Cluzel J, Menerath JM, Bonhomme B, Doly M. Antioxidant effect of a Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on the retina. Int J Tissue React 1995;17:93-100.
        3. Dziak LA, Golik VA. [The efficacy of treating cerebral ischemia due to changes in the major cerebral arteries by using the preparation Tanakan (EGB 761)]. Lik Sprava 1998;125-7.
        4. Haase J, Halama P, Horr R. [Effectiveness of brief infusions with Ginkgo biloba Special Extract EGb 761 in dementia of the vascular and Alzheimer type]. Z Gerontol Geriatr 1996;29:302-9.
        5. Itil TM, Eralp E, Ahmed I, Kunitz A, Itil KZ. The pharmacological effects of ginkgo biloba, a plant extract, on the brain of dementia patients in comparison with tacrine. Psychopharmacol Bull 1998;34:391-7.
        6. Ivaniv OP. [The results of using different forms of a Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in the combined treatment of patients with circulatory encephalopathy]. Lik Sprava 1998;123-8.
        7. Janssens D, Michiels C, Delaive E, Eliaers F, Drieu K, Remacle J. Protection of hypoxia-induced ATP decrease in endothelial cells by ginkgo biloba extract and bilobalide. Biochem Pharmacol 1995;50:991-9.
        8. Kanowski S, Herrmann WM, Stephan K, Wierich W, Horr R. Proof of efficacy of the ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in outpatients suffering from mild to moderate primary degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer type or multi-infarct dementia. Pharmacopsychiatry 1996;29:47-56.
        9. Kidd PM. A review of nutrients and botanicals in the integrative management of cognitive dysfunction. Altern Med Rev 1999;4:144-61.
        10. Klein J, Chatterjee SS, Loffelholz K. Phospholipid breakdown and choline release under hypoxic conditions: inhibition by bilobalide, a constituent of Ginkgo biloba. Brain Res 1997;755:347-50.
        11. Le Bars PL, Katz MM, Berman N, Itil TM, Freedman AM, Schatzberg AF. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial of an extract of Ginkgo biloba for dementia. North American EGb Study Group [see comments]. Jama 1997;278:1327-32.
        12. Oken BS, Storzbach DM, Kaye JA. The efficacy of Ginkgo biloba on cognitive function in Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 1998;55:1409-15.
        13. Oyama Y, Chikahisa L, Ueha T, Kanemaru K, Noda K. Ginkgo biloba extract protects brain neurons against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide. Brain Res 1996;712:349-52.

        Phosphatidyl Serine

        1. Allegro L, Favaretto V, Ziliotto G. Oral phosphatidylserine in elderly patients with cognitive deterioration , an open study. Clinical Trials Journal 1987;24:104-108.
        2. Brambilla F, Maggioni M, Cenacchi T, Sacerdote P, Panerai AR. Tlymphocyte proliferative response to mitogen stimulation in elderly depressed patients. J Affect Disord 1995;36:51-6.
        3. Brambilla F, Maggioni M, Panerai AE, Sacerdote P, Cenacchi T. Beta-endorphin concentration in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of elderly depressed patients--effects of phosphatidylserine therapy. Neuropsychobiology 1996;34:18-21.
        4. Cenacchi T, Baggio C, Palin E. Human tolerability of oral phosphatidylserine assessed through laboratory examinations. CLIN TRIALS J 1987;24:125-130.
        5. Cenacchi T, Bertoldin T, Farina C, Fiori MG, Crepaldi G. Cognitive decline in the elderly: a double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study on efficacy of phosphatidylserine administration. Aging (Milano) 1993;5:123-33.
        6. Crook T, Petrie W, Wells C, Massari DC. Effects of phosphatidylserine in Alzheimer's disease. Psychopharmacol Bull 1992;28:61-6.
        7. Crook TH, Tinklenberg J, Yesavage J, Petrie W, Nunzi MG, Massari DC. Effects of phosphatidylserine in age-associated memory impairment. Neurology 1991;41:644-9.
        8. Delwaide PJ, Gyselynck-Mambourg AM, Hurlet A, Ylieff M. Double-blind randomized controlled study of phosphatidylserine in senile demented patients. Acta Neurol Scand 1986;73:136-40.
        9. Drago F, Spadaro F, D'Agata V, Valerio C, Grassi M, Mauceri F, Pennisi G, Scapagnini U. Protective action of phosphatidylserine on stress-induced behavioral and autonomic changes in aged rats. Neurobiol Aging 1991;12:437-40.
        10. Engel RR, Satzger W, Gunther W, Kathmann N, Bove D, Gerke S, Munch U, Hippius H. Double-blind cross-over study of phosphatidylserine vs. placebo in patients with early dementia of the Alzheimer type. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 1992;2:149-55.
        11. Funfgeld EW, Baggen M, Nedwidek P, Richstein B, Mistlberger G. Double-blind study with phosphatidylserine (PS) in parkinsonian patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer's type (SDAT). Prog Clin Biol Res 1989;317:1235-46.
        12. Furushiro M, Suzuki S, Shishido Y, Sakai M, Yamatoya H, Kudo S, Hashimoto S, Yokokura T. Effects of oral administration of soybean lecithin transphosphatidylated phosphatidylserine on impaired learning of passive avoidance in mice. Jpn J Pharmacol 1997;75:447-50.
        13. Gianotti C, Porta A, De Graan PN, Oestreicher AB, Nunzi MG. B- 50/GAP-43 phosphorylation in hippocampal slices from aged rats: effects of phosphatidylserine administration. Neurobiol Aging 1993;14:401-6.
        14. Granata Q, Di Michele J. Phosphatidylserine in elderly patients an open trial. Clinical Trials Journal 1987;24:99-103.
        15. Heiss WD, Kessler J, Mielke R, Szelies B, Herholz K. Long-term effects of phosphatidylserine, pyritinol, and cognitive training in Alzheimer's disease. A neuropsychological, EEG, and PET investigation. Dementia 1994;5:88-98.
        16. Khalsa DS. Integrated medicine and the prevention and reversal of memory loss. Altern Ther Health Med 1998;4:38-43.
        17. Kidd PM. A review of nutrients and botanicals in the integrative management of cognitive dysfunction. Altern Med Rev 1999;4:144-61.
        18. Maggioni M, Picotti GB, Bondiolotti GP, Panerai A, Cenacchi T, Nobile P, Brambilla F. Effects of phosphatidylserine therapy in geriatric patients with depressive disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1990;81:265-70.
        19. Ransmayr G, Ploerer S, Gerstenbrand F, Bauer G. Double-blind placebo-controlled trial of phosphatidylserine in patients with arteriosclerotic encephalopathy. Clinical Trials Journal 1987;24:62-72.
        20. Sakai M, Yamatoya H, Kudo S. Pharmacological effects of phosphatidylserine enzymatically synthesized from soybean lecithin on brain functions in rodents. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo)
        21. 1996;42:47-54.
        22. Sinforiani E, Agostinis C, Merlo P, Gualtieri S, Mauri. Cognitive decline in ageing brain therapeutic approach with phosphatidylserine.
        23. Amaducci L. Phosphatidylserine in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: results of a multicenter study. Psychopharmacol Bull 1988;24:130-4.
        24. Benton D, Donohoe RT, Sillance B, Nabb S. The influence of phosphatidylserine supplementation on mood and heart rate when faced with an acute stressor. Nutr Neurosci 2001;4:169-78.
        25. Blokland A, Honig W, Brouns F, Jolles J. Cognition-enhancing properties of subchronic phosphatidylserine (PS) treatment in middle-aged rats: comparison of bovine cortex PS with egg PS and soybean PS. Nutrition 1999;15:778-83.
        26. Cenacchi T, Bertoldin T, Farina C, et al. Cognitive decline in the elderly: a double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study on efficacy of phosphatidylserine administration. Aging (Milano) 1993;5:123-33.
        27. Crook T, Petrie W, Wells C, Massari DC. Effects of phosphatidylserine in Alzheimer's disease. Psychopharmacol Bull 1992;28:61-6.
        28. Crook TH, Tinklenberg J, Yesavage J, et al. Effects of phosphatidylserine in age-associated memory impairment. Neurology 1991;41:644-9.
        29. Delwaide PJ, Gyselynck-Mambourg AM, Hurlet A, Ylieff M. Double-blind, randomized, controlled study of phosphatidylserine in senile demented patients. Acta Neurol Scand 1986;73:136-40.
        30. Engel RR, Satzger W, Gunther W, et al. Double-blind cross-over study of phosphatidylserine vs. placebo in patients with early dementia of the Alzheimer type. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 1992;2:149-55.
        31. Fahey TD, Pearl MS. The hormonal and perceptive effects of phosphatidylserine administration during two weeks of resistive exercise-induced overtraining. Biol Sport 1998;15:135-44.
        32. Funfgeld EW, Baggen M, Nedwidek P, et al. Double-blind study with phosphatidylserine (PS) in parkinsonian patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer's type (SDAT). Prog Clin Biol Res 1989;317:1235-46.
        33. Heiss WD, Kessler J, Mielke R, et al. Long-term effects of phosphatidylserine, pyritinol, and cognitive training in Alzheimer's disease. A neuropsychological, EEG, and PET investigation. Dementia 1994;5:88-98.
        34. Kidd PM. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children: rationale for its integrative management. Altern Med Rev 2000;5:402-28.
        35. Kidd PM. Phosphatidylserine; Membrane nutrient for memory. A clinical and mechanistic assessment. Altern Med Rev 1996;1:70-84.
        36. Kim HY, Akbar M, Lau A, et al. Inhibition of neuronal apoptosis by docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3). Role of phosphatidylserine in antiapoptotic effect. J Biol Chem 2000;275:35215-23.
        37. Lewis CJ. Letter to reiterate certain public health and safety concerns to firms manufacturing or importing dietary supplements that contain specific bovine tissues. FDA. Available at: www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/dspltr05.html.
        38. Maggioni M, Picotti GB, Bondiolotti GP, et al. Effects of phosphatidylserine therapy in geriatric patients with depressive disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1990;81:265-70.
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